Scientific studies

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The data obtained of the research carried out at the University of Trieste – Department of Sciences of the Vita (D4 Rizoma project 2007-2008) shows a reduction of the microbial load of over 90% with concentrations not lower than 2 ppm for at least 6 hours of treatment.
At higher concentrations the same result was obtained by decreasing the treatment time. According to studies carried out by the University of Pavia, Dept. of Pharmacological Physiological Sciences in 2004, in a 115 cubic m room treated with ozonation for 20 minutes the bacterial load of the air was reduced by 63% and that of yeasts and molds by 46.5%, while the bacterial load of the surfaces has been reduced by 90% and that of yeasts and molds by 99%.

Main international scientific validations

Among the other main international scientific validations concerning Ozone we must remember:
• On June 26, 2001 the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) admitted the use of ozone as an antimicrobial agent in the gas phase or in an aqueous solution in the production processes;
• Document 21 CFR part 173.368 declared ozone as a GRAS element (Generally Recognized As Safe) that is a secondary food additive safe for human health;
• The USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) in the FSIS Directive 7120.1 approves the use of ozone in contact with the raw product, up to fresh cooked products
and products just before packaging;

Main italian scientific validations

• University of Naples “Federico II” – in vitro tests of the inactivating power of nascent oxygen towards pathogenic enterobacteria and absence of genetic mutations;
• University of Udine – Department of science of food prot. 219/94 – test of decontamination on flat surfaces of equipment used for processing salmonella meats –
• University of Parma – Institute of microbiology – tests to verify the sterilizing capacity on colonies and bacteria. S.aureus – ps.aeruginosa – str duranS;
• Ministry of Health Higher Institute of Health-Dipartiment of Alimentation and nutrition veterinary, protocols deposited certifications, protocol 24482 31/07/96;
• On October 27, 2010 the CNSA (committee for there food safety), is an advisory technical body which operates within the Ministry of Health, has expressed a favorable opinion on the treatment of air with ozone in cheese aging environments;
• On 16 May 2020 the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, in the ISS-COVID-19 report no. 25/2020, recognized Ozone as a sanitizer;
• The Italian Society of General Medicine implemented the “Safe Zone” project in 2020 to sanitize over 100 Family Medical Studies in 100 days. The sanitation processes will concern both the premises of the surgery and the waiting room through ozone generators for professional sanitation.
The table shows the indicative times for the elimination of some pathogens, the inactivation of bacteria, viruses, fungi, molds and insects following ozonation:

BATTERIA (E. Coli, Legionella, Mycobacterium, Fecal Streptococcus)
0,23 ppm – 2,2 ppm
< 20 min
VIRUS (Poliovirus type-1, Human Rotavirus, Enteric virus)
0,2 ppm – 4,1 ppm
< 20 min
MOLDS (Aspergillus Niger, vari ceppi di Penicillum, Cladosporium)
60 min
FUNGUS (Candida Parapsilosis, Candida Tropicalis)
0,02 ppm – 0,26 ppm
< 1,67 min
INSECTS (Acarus Siro,Tyrophagus Casei, Tyrophagus Putrescientiae)
1,5 – 2 ppm
30 min

(Quote: Edelstein et al., 1982; Joret et al., 1982; Farooq and Akhlaque,1983; Harakeh and Butle, 1985; Kawamuram et al. 1986).

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